Medieval Inquisition While the witch trials only really began in the 15th century, with the start of the early modern periodmany of their causes[ citation needed ] had been developing during the previous centuries, with the prosecution of heresy by the Medieval Inquisition during the late twelfth and the thirteenth centuries, and during the Late Medieval periodduring which the idea of witchcraft or sorcery gradually changed and adapted. The inquisition had the office of protecting Christians against the "internal" threat of heresy as opposed to "external" military threats such as those of the Vikingsthe Mongolsand the Saracens or Turks. Witches by Hans Baldung Grien Woodcut, During the High Middle Agesa number of heretical Christian groups, such as the Cathars and the Knights Templar had been accused of performing such anti-Christian activities as Satanism, sodomy and malevolent sorcery in France. While the nucleus of the early modern "witch craze" would turn out to be popular superstition in the Western Alpsreinforced by theological rationale developed at or following the Council of Basel of the s, what has been called "the first real witch trial in Europe,"  the accusation of Alice Kyteler inoccurred in 14th-century Irelandduring the turmoils associated with the decline of Norman control.
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that the celebrated thinkers in the post-Renaissance western world are all essentially the intellectual progeny of Spinoza - but one which is remarkably researched and, given the weightiness of the topic, clearly conveyed.
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French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment between (the year that He instead focuses on the history of ideas in the period from to the end of the 18th century and claims that it was the ideas themselves that caused the change that The Enlightenment World. (). pp.
39 essays by scholars; Hampson, Norman. As Europe began to assume a more dominant position in world trade, the Protestant Reformation produced sweeping internal changes in Western society and religion.
B. The Italian Renaissance TheRenaissance, built on a commercial society, challenged medieval intellectual foundations. American Rationalism () Rationalism Rationalism â the belief that human beings can arrive at truth by using reason, rather than by relying on the authority of the past, on religious faith, or intuition.
Discuss How Rationalism Changed The World Between – Many changes took place between and There was territory expansion as European countries started colonies in the Americas. Political changes took place as well, as people began to rise up against the government.