Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Literature Reviews Volume 5, Chapter Social Control and Self-Control Theories 11 Social Control Theory Social control theory gained prominence during the s as sociologists sought differing conceptions of crime. It was during this period that Travis Hirschi put forth his innovative rendering of control theory, a theory built upon existing concepts of social control.
Originating in the mid- to lates in the United States at a moment of tremendous political and cultural conflict, labeling theorists brought to center stage the role of government agencies, and social processes in general, in the creation of deviance and crime.
The theory represented both a theoretical and methodological break from the past, and it could reasonably be argued that it was one of the dominant theoretical perspectives in the study of crime and deviance from the late s until the early s.
It was also responsible for spurring countless empirical studies over this time period. Although there were periods when interest in labeling process was in decline, particularly afterlabeling theory has had a bit of a resurgence in recent years.
Labeling theories of crime are often referred to as social reaction theories, because they focus primarily on the consequences of responses or reactions to crime.
|monstermanfilm.com - Informationen zum Thema collegeessayseller.||Labeling theory Save Labeling theory is the theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them.|
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|Browse by Content Type||The labeling theory is based upon the idea that one is not considered deviant through their actions, but instead deviance is built upon from people negatively judging an individual with disparate behavioral tendencies from the cultural norm. It centralizes around the idea that deviance is relative, as nobody is born deviant, but become deviant through social processes when surrounding peers consistently label a person as deviant.|
|Is this question part of your Assignment?||Labeling theory or social reaction theoryfocuses on the tendency of majorities to negatively label minorities or those seen as deviant from norms.|
These responses or reactions typically focus on three sets of actors: All of these very diverse actions have one thing in common: First is the status characteristics hypothesis, which states that labels are imposed in part because of the status of those doing the labeling and those being labeled.
The second is the secondary deviance hypothesis, which essentially argues that deviant labels create problems that the one being labeled must adjust to and deal with, and that under certain conditions labels can lead to greater involvement in crime and deviance.
Whether the causal factors are biological e. Labeling theorists are generally uninterested in the causes of crime, and are more interested in the reactions to crime.
These reactions to crime, or labels, occur in processes at different levels of aggregation—the individual, the institutional, and the macro state or national rule making —and how labeled persons respond to those labels.
In the early- to mids, labeling theorists published numerous theoretical works and influenced a great deal of empirical work. By the s, however, critics began to seriously question the validity of labeling theory, primarily on the grounds that the empirical research did not seem to confirm the two major labeling propositions.
Tittle is illustrative of this position; Tittle argues that if labeling theory claims only that status characteristics have some effect, then the theory is unimportant, and if it fails to be clear about the magnitude of the effect, then it is imprecise.
Although the dominance once enjoyed by the theory waned considerably, theoretical and empirical work in the late s and early s revitalized the theory and integrated labeling propositions into more general theories of crime.
See also Paternoster and Iovanni and Braithwaite Studies in the sociology of deviance. Crime, shame and reintegration.
Cambridge, UK, and New York: A systematic approach to the study of sociopathic behavior. Primary deviance is that which occurs without the person committed to or performing out of a deviant role.
Primary deviance has any number of causes. Secondary deviance occurs as a response to the problems created by the imposition of a deviant label.
Paternoster, Raymond, and LeeAnn Iovanni. The labeling perspective and delinquency: An elaboration of the theory and an assessment of the evidence. For example, they argue that the secondary deviance hypothesis includes many probabilistic contingencies that link labeling to identity changes, or changes in the routine activities of the labeled person and other experiences.
They also remind the field that interest in racial and class discrimination could be directly linked to the labeling tradition. In The labeling of deviance: Edited by Walter R.With terrorism, labeling has implications.
The words and concepts we use to discuss terrorism and counterterrorism can have profound implications for how countries, populations and individuals behave.
Labeling Theory Labeling Theory is a sociological approach to explaining how criminal behavior is perpetuated by the police and others. This theory looked at how labels applied to individuals influenced their behavior; particular negative labels (such as “criminal” or “felon”) promote deviant behavior (online).
Labeling theory is a criminological theory that contends that formal sanctions amplify, rather than deter, future delinquent and criminal behavior. Extending Labeling Theory Consequences of White-Collar Crime Theory: Policy Implications open-access and includes links to relevant articles selected from Francis T.
Cullen and Pamela Wilcox's Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory. The sixth edition of Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences builds on its prior success with updated coverage of criminological theory and a fresh look at policy implications.
The earliest version of labeling theory (Becker ; Erikson ; Lemert ; Tannenbaum ) asserts that deviant behavior does not simply violate norms; it is behavior that others successfully define or label as deviant.