The new committee was to provide for the defense of the nation against its enemies, foreign and domestic, and to oversee the already existing organs of executive government. The members of the committee, at first numbering 9 and later increased to 12, were elected by the National Convention representative assembly for a period of one month and were eligible for reelection. From April to July 10,the Committee of Public Safety was dominated by Georges Danton and his followers, who pursued a policy of moderation and reconciliation but who failed to deal adequately with the precarious military situation. These men were replaced in July by men more determined and more radical in the defense of the Revolution, among them Maximilien Robespierre.
Click here for a more detailed account of the French Revolution The French people overthrew their ancient government in Equality, or doing away with privilege, was the most important part of the slogan to the French revolutionists. For equality they were willing to sacrifice their political liberty.
They did this when they accepted the rule of Napoleon I. Fraternity, or brotherhood with all men, was also sacrificed.
However, they did win equality before the law. Before inequality was typical of the old government. The nobles and clergy were the privileged orders. They were exempt from such direct taxes as the taille, or land tax.
Most taxes were paid by the Third Estate--a class that included peasants, artisans, merchants, and professional men. Even among these groups taxes were not equal.
Some provinces were exempt from certain assessments, such as the gabelle, or salt tax. In addition, the collection of some taxes was made by contractors or tax farmers, and the tax gatherers collected whatever they could.
Other Inequalities There were social and economic inequalities as well as political ones. The peasant suffered under the burden of out-of-date feudal dues. These were collected with renewed vigor by the nobles in the latter part of the 18th century.
In addition to the dues to the king and the nobles, the peasants had to pay dues to the church. These and other obligations seemed senseless and unreasonable in an age when people were coming to believe in the rule of reason. The conditions were no worse in the latter part of the 18th century than they had been earlier.
Neither were they as bad in France as in some other parts of Europe.
Now, however, the people were beginning to think. The writers of the time helped stir up thought and discontent. Final Steps Before the Revolution At last the day of reckoning came. The national treasury had been exhausted by the wars of Louis XIV and by his extravagance and that of his successors.
The million dollars that it cost France to aid the Americans in their fight for independence was the last straw. Jacques Turgot and Jacques Necker, ministers of finance, had tried to ward off bankruptcy by cutting court expenses.
The reckless court, led by the sprightly, frivolous, extravagant queen, Marie Antoinette, would not listen to the word "economy" see Marie Antoinette. Turgot and Necker were dismissed and other ministers took their place.
Finally foreign bankers refused to lend more money. Public opinion was deeply stirred by the Parlement of Paris, a judicial body which defied the king and refused to enforce new taxes.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Jan 27, · The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars represented continuity in European diplomacy from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century, but witnessed considerable change in the way that war was waged.
The influence of Revolutionary and Napoleonic France depended on the nature of its relationship with the other European states.
The French Revolution: A War of the Social Classes - The French Revolution was basically a war of the social classes.
The middle class believed that in order to gain equality they had to get rid of the privileges that were stopping the progress of their rise in society. Full Answer. The National Convention created the Committee of Public Safety to defend France from its domestic and foreign enemies, and to coordinate the French government's executive functions.
The French Revolution of had a momentous impact on neighboring countries. The French Revolutionary in the second half of the 19th century, this helped pave the way for future economic growth.
The evidence. The publisher of the Journal on European History of Law is the STS Science Centre Ltd. seated in London.
The European Society for History of Law closely cooperates with the STS Science Centre Ltd. and helps with editing the journal.