An overview of the process of cloning and the history of genetic manipulation

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An overview of the process of cloning and the history of genetic manipulation

An overview of the process of cloning and the history of genetic manipulation

Detailed descriptions of methods used in animal cloning and biotechnology are provided in the report Animal Biotechnology: In addition, the committee was charged with evaluating methods to detect potential, unintended, adverse health effects of foods derived from cloned animals. Applications of biotechnology to animal agriculture include improving milk production and composition; increasing growth rate of meat animals; improving productive efficiency, or gain-to-feed ratios, and carcass composition; increasing disease resistance; enhancing reproductive performance; increasing prolificacy; and altering cell and tissue characteristics for biomedical research and manufacturing.

Continued development of new biotechnologies also will allow farm animals to serve as sources of both biopharmaceuticals for human medicine and organs for transplantation. One such example is recombinant-derived bovine somatotropin bST.

Commercial use in the United States began in early and has increased to the point that about one-half of all U. It is, however, important to distinguish the use of bST from other biotechnologies, such as transgenic or cloned animals.

Application of recombinant bST is a biotechnology in which a recombinant-derived protein is administered by injection to the recipient animal without changing the animal's genetic composition or genome. The application of genomics—the study of how the genes in deoxyribonucleic acid DNA are organized and expressed—and bioinformatics in animal agriculture will provide new genetic markers for improved selection for desired traits in all livestock species.

Transgenic biology provides a means of altering animal genomes to achieve desired production and health outcomes of commercial value and societal importance. For example, genetic modification of animals may lead to technologies that reduce the major losses that occur during the first months of embryogenesis.

Biotechnology also offers potential to animal agriculture as a means to reduce nutrients and odors from manure and volume of manure produced, resulting in animals that are more environmentally friendly CAST, The advent of techniques to propagate animals by nuclear transfer, also known as cloning, potentially offers many important applications to animal agriculture, including reproducing highly desired elite sires and dams.

Animals selected for cloning will be of great value because of their increased genetic merit for increased food production, disease resistance, and reproductive efficiency, or will be valued because they have been genetically modified to produce organs for transplantation or products with biomedical application.

Before entering the marketplace, new agricultural biotechnologies are evaluated rigorously by the appropriate federal regulatory agencies to ensure efficacy, consumer safety, and animal health and well-being.

The development of technologies to clone animals used for food production has raised the question of whether there are unintended compositional changes in food derived from these animals that may, in turn, result in unintended health effects.

CLONING Cloninga term originally used primarily in horticulture to describe asexually produced progeny, means to make a copy of an individual organism, or in cellular and molecular biology, groups of identical cells and replicas of DNA and other molecules.

For example, monozygotic twins are clones. Although clone is descriptive for multiple approaches for cloning animals, in this report clone is used as a descriptor for somatic cell nuclear transfer.

Animal cloning during the late s resulted from the transfer of nuclei from blastomeres of early cleavage-stage embryos into enucleated oocytes, and cloning of livestock and laboratory animals has resulted from transferring a nucleus from a somatic cell into an oocyte from which the nucleus has been removed Westhusin et al.

Somatic cell nuclear transfer can also be used to produce undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, which are matched to the recipient for research and therapy that is independent of the reproductive cloning of animals.

Cloning by nuclear transfer from embryonic blastomeres Willadsen, ; Willadsen and Polge, or from a differentiated cell of an adult Kuhholzer and Prather, ; Polejaeva et al. The offspring will be identical to their siblings and to the original donor animal in terms of their nuclear DNA, but will differ in their mitochondrial genes; variances in the manner nuclear genes are expressed are also possible.

Epigenetic Change in the Genome Epigenetics is the study of factors that influence behavior of a cell without directly affecting its DNA or other genetic components. The epigenetic view of differentiation is that cells undergo differentiation events that depend on correct temporal and spatial repression, derepression, or activation of genes affecting the fate of cells, tissues, organs, and ultimately, organisms.

Thus epigenetic changes in an organism are normal and result in alterations in gene expression.Overview: DNA cloning. Definition, purpose, and basic steps of DNA cloning. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Email. DNA cloning is the process of making multiple, Humans and bacteria share the same genetic code, meaning that a human gene can be transcribed and translated in bacteria.

Cloning’s Historical Timeline retain all the genetic information necessary to create a new organism. This from early sheep embryo cells, a process now called twinning.

This is the first verified cloning of a mammal via nuclear transfer. Other scientists will eventually. The second step of the genetic engineering process is gene cloning.

During DNA extraction, all of the DNA from the organism is extracted at once. Scientists use gene cloning to separate the single gene of interest from the rest of the genes extracted and make thousands of copies of it.

The term genetic engineering initially referred to various techniques used for the modification or manipulation of organisms through the processes of heredity and reproduction. As such, the term embraced both artificial selection and all the interventions of biomedical techniques, among them artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization (e.g., “test-tube” babies), cloning, and gene manipulation.

to outline the concept of genetic manipulation, which is an all-inclusive term that describes the deliberate manipulation of the genetic material by biochemical techniques.

It is also referred to as genetic modification or genetic engineering. Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms.

genetic engineering | Definition, Process, & Uses |