According to this theory, the word simply described persons from this area, and it is only in the last few centuries that it has taken on the broader sense of early medieval Scandinavians in general.
Moscow and only properly made Emperor by Papal coronation, with all its expressed and implied conditions, not surprisingly was soon shown to be wielding a fatally compromised and fading form of power. In the treatment here, "Francia" will mean all of Europe that in the Mediaeval period was subject to the Roman Catholic Church, with its Latin liturgy, headed by the Popethe Bishop of Rome.
Since the Pope retained the right to crown Emperors in the area subject to his Church, the Emperors in Charlemagne's line retained an implicit primacy, if not sovereignty, over all of Roman Catholic Europe, however little actual authority they may have exercised.
For many centuries, Latin was the principal, sometimes the only, written language over an area, "greater" Francia, that came to stretch from Norway to Portugal and from Iceland to Catholic parts of the Ukraine.
These men were even, significantly, figures getting into the modern period, not of the deep Middle Ages. One consequence of the dominance of Latin was the universal use of the Latin alphabet, and the borrowing of Latin vocabulary for vernacular languages from Norwegian to Hungarian. In an age when alphabets went with religions, the only exception to this was the use of the Hebrew alphabet to write Spanish Ladino and German Yiddish by European Jews.
The alphabet that had been developed to write Gothic disappeared with its language. The old Runic alphabet also largely disappeared with the Christianization of Germany and Scandinavia, though its values were not forgotten.
The use of Latin and its alphabet contrasts with the official use of Greek and its alphabet in Romania together with other special alphabets, like Armenian and the use of the Cyrillic alphabet in Russia. World languages with their own traditional writing, like Chinese and Japanese, use Romanization extensively, both officially and unofficially.
The use of the Latin alphabet in Francia often goes along with languages, the Romance languages, that are themselves descended from Latin, like Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian. On the other hand, Francia was the result of the West Roman Empire collapsing under the inroads of Germans and then of a new identity being formulated by the Germanic Franks.
The balance of power then, however, ended up being determined by another Germanic speaking power, England, coming in on the side of Romance speaking France. Meanwhile, the language family that was displaced by the Romans in Gaul and by the Angles and Saxons in Britain persists in the " Celtic Fringe" of Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, including Brittanywhich was actually colonized with refugees from Celtic Britain.
Welsh betrays its heritage as the language of Roman Britain with Latin days of the week and other borrowings. In the East, the Slavic languages represent another boundary productive of conflict.
After the initial migration of Slavic speakers that pushed Germans behind the Elbe and replaced large areas of indigenous languages in the Balkans, German speakers moved steadily east until World War II, after which the Russians expelled many Germans and returned the boundary to about where it was in the 12th century.
Between the northern and southern Slavs, however, is a Romance speaking remnant in the Balkans, Romaniaand the Hungarianswho were the only steppe people to first invade Europe but then settle down and even retain their linguistic identity, despite their country often being called after the earlier and unrelated Huns.
The only other languages in Francia related to Hungarian, which is not an Indo-European language, are Finnish and Estonianwhich are probably at the western end of a very ancient distribution of the Uralic languages.
The language that has the best claim to being the autochthonous language of Francia is Basquewhich has no established affinities with any other language in the world and whose people have been determined by genetic studies to have been in the area since the Pleistocene.
On the southern edge of the map is a little bit of Francia, Maltawhere a language is spoken, Maltese, that is descended from Arabic and so unrelated to other modern languages in Francia.
This is a remnant of the Aghlabid conquest of Sicily, although now the Maltese have long been Catholic, and the language is written, of course, in the Latin alphabet. The orange area on the map above merits special notice. Lithuanian and Lativian are the remaining Baltic languages.
They are more closely related to the Slavic languages than to the others, but are significant for their conservatism. Lithuanian is the only surviving Indo-European language with a tone accent. Today, a tone accent is most conspicuous in Chinese.
Historically, Lithuania holds the prize as the last country in Europe to become Christian, not definitively converting until the Grand Duke Jagiello Meanwhile, for a good two centuries it had played the role of a frontier, and a wild one, between Catholic Europe in the West and both Orthodoxy Muscovy and the Mongol Golden Horde in the East.
In doing so, however, he defeated what had previously represented the frontier of the West, the Teutonic Knights. The Knights had occupied the territory of the Prussians and converted them, while their compatriots, the Livonian Knights, had occupied the territory of the Latvians and converted them.
The Prussian language was also part of the Baltic group, but eventually the Prussians themselves became German speaking. Today, the original land of Prussia is divided between Poland and Russia, with most of the German speakers, including those who would have been ethnic Prussians, expelled.
Modern Latvialike Lithuania, has at long last again become independent. The original core of Francia, the Frankish Kingdom that came to dominate the West under Charlemagne, can be identified as those areas upon whose ruler the Pope at one time or another conferred a crown as the Roman Emperor.
Part of the Mediaeval theory of Papal power came to include this ultimate authority to create and legitimate secular authority. Outlying areas, Spain, Britain, Scandinavia, etc. Charlemagne himself ruled modern France, northern Italy, and most of modern Germany.
After the death of Charles the Fat inthe imperial title was fitfully conferred on Kings of Italyand then lapsed entirely in The "Empire" came to be regarded as consisting of four crowns: Lorrainewhich had been a separate kingdom in the inheritance of Charlemagne, soon become part of the system of "Stem Duchies" in Germany.
The title dux "leader"which was the Roman title of a frontier military commander, thus achieves its elevated Mediaeval meaning as a feudal title in relation to these units. A duke is only inferior to a sovereign prince.Other calendars used in the ancient Near East.
Of the calendars of other peoples of the ancient Near East, very little is known.
Thus, though the names of all or of some months are known, their order is not. Overview: The Vikings, to The story of the Vikings in Britain is one of conquest, expulsion, extortion and reconquest. Their lasting legacy was the formation of the independent kingdoms.
On the astrolabe, latitude was determined by the height of the sun or the pole star, which was measured by the qiyas figure system. Astrolabes were quite difficult to use at sea because of the rolling of the ships, which made it hard to determine the vertical line accurately.
Ancient Scandinavia: An Archaeological History from the First Humans to the Vikings - Kindle edition by T. Douglas Price. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Ancient Scandinavia: An Archaeological History from the First Humans to the /5(6).
Aug 21, · Viking Settlements: Europe and Beyond; Danish Dominance; End of the Viking Age; From around A.D. to the 11th century, a vast number of Scandinavians left their homelands to seek their fortunes elsewhere.
The Viking explorers covered most of the known world during the Viking age. Viking settlers founded many large cities.
Today, we find that Viking descendants all over Europe are proud of their heritage from these fierce and fearsome yet very culturally developed people from the North.
History. Vikings; Modern Scandinavia & the .