Use an editor to spell check essay. The environment of planet Earth is being harmed and the causes of environmental degradation are mostly man made. Natural resources are being exploited to provide energy, food, and technology for an ever-growing global population. In the process, the globe is warming at an unprecedented rate, water and air are being polluted, and forests are being destroyed; however, awareness and education are encouraging the search for environmental first aid.
Classification[ edit ] Infant mortality rate IMR is the number of deaths per 1, live births of children under one year of age. The rate for a given region is the number of children dying under one year of age, Global trends essay by the number of live births during the year, multiplied by 1, Perinatal mortality is late fetal death 22 weeks gestation to birthor death of a newborn up to one week postpartum.
Neonatal death is often attributed to inadequate access to basic medical care, during pregnancy and after delivery. The major contributors to postneonatal death are malnutrition, infectious disease, troubled pregnancy, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and problems with the home environment.
In the United States, a primary determinant of infant mortality risk is infant birth weight with lower birth weights increasing the risk of infant mortality. The determinants of low birth weight include socio-economic, psychological, behavioral and environmental factors.
Congenial malformations[ edit ] Congenial malformations is a Global trends essay defect that babies are born with such as cleft lip and palate, down syndrome, and heart defects.
Often times, this occurs when the mother consumes alcohol, but it can also be a cause of genetics or have an unknown cause. Malnutrition and infections diseases were the main cause of death in more undeveloped countries. These birth defects mostly had to do with heart and central nervous system.
In the 19th century, there was a decrease in the amount of infant deaths from heart diseases. As compared with normal-birth-weight infants, those with low weight at birth are almost 40 times more likely to die in the neonatal period; for infants with very low weight at birth the relative risk of neonatal death is almost times greater.
LBW may be the leading cause of infant deaths, and it is greatly preventable. Although it is preventable, the solutions may not be the easiest but effective programs to help prevent LBW are a combination of health care, education, environment, mental modification and public policy, influencing a culture supporting lifestyle.
Reasons for this include teenage pregnancyincrease in pregnant mothers over the age of thirty-five, increase in the use of in-vitro fertilization which increases the risk of multiple births, obesity and diabetes. Also, women who do not have access to health care are less likely to visit a doctor, therefore increasing their risk of delivering prematurely.
Sudden infant death syndrome Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS is a syndrome where an infant dies in their sleep with no reasoning behind it. Even with a complete autopsy, no one has been able to figure out what causes this disease. This disease is more common in Western countries.
Scientist have also discovered three causes within a model they created called, the contemporary triple risk model. This model states that three conditions such as the mother smoking while pregnant, the age of the infant, and stress referring to conditions such as overheating, prone sleeping, co-sleeping, and head covering.
Malnutrition in children Malnutrition or undernutrition is defined as inadequate intake of nourishment, such as proteins and vitamins, which adversely affects the growth, energy and development of people all over the world. It is estimated that about 3.
Adverse effects of malnutrition[ edit ] Children suffering from malnutrition face adverse physical effects such as stunting, wasting, or being overweight.
In Africa the number of stunted children has risen, while Asia holds the most children under 5 suffering from wasting. Micronutrient deficiency such as iron has been linked to children with anemia, fatigue, and poor brain development.
The mother may not be aware of the infection, or she may have an untreated pelvic inflammatory disease or sexually transmitted disease.
These bacteria can move up the vaginal canal into the amniotic sac surrounding the baby. Maternal blood-borne infection is another route of bacterial infection from mother to baby.
Neonatal infection is also more likely with the premature rupture of the membranes PROM of the amniotic sac. Measles is the fifth-largest cause of childhood mortality. Water contaminated with various pathogens houses a host of parasitic and microbial infections.
Infectious disease and parasites are carried via water pollution from animal wastes. For example, the inaccessibility of clean water exacerbates poor sanitation conditions.
Short-term and long-term effects of ambient air pollution are associated with an increased mortality rate, including infant mortality. Air pollution is consistently associated with post neonatal mortality due to respiratory effects and sudden infant death syndrome.
Specifically, air pollution is highly associated with SIDs in the United States during the post-neonatal stage. Women who are exposed to greater air pollution on a daily basis who are pregnant should be closely watched by their doctors, as well as after the baby is born.
Babies who live in areas with less air pollution have a greater chance of living until their first birthday. As expected, babies who live in environments with more air pollution are at greater risk for infant mortality.
Areas that have higher air pollution also have a greater chance of having a higher population density, higher crime rates and lower income levels, all of which can lead to higher infant mortality rates.
Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas that does great harm especially to infants because of their immature respiratory system. According to the American Journal of Public Health, "inmore than 42 Americans died of second hand smoke-attributable diseases, including more than 41 adults and nearly infants In synthesis of this research, it has been observed that "African American infant mortality remains elevated due to the social arrangements that exist between groups and the lifelong experiences responding to the resultant power dynamics of these arrangements.Industry insights and audit, consulting, financial advisory, risk management, and tax services from Deloitte's global network of member firms.
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The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) is the AU’s largest, most ambitious, most complex and most dangerous peace support operation.
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Introduction to the GSR. Today I want to take a deep look at the global biofuels picture, drawing mainly from the Renewables Global Status Report (GSR) that was released in June by REN21, the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century.
I had intended to draw data primarily from the recently released Statistical Review of World .