Renew borrowed items online before the due date. Introduction Using a review matrix enables you to quickly compare and contrast articles in order to determine the scope of research across time. A review matrix can help you more easily spot differences and similarities between journal articles about a given research topic.
An exhaustive literature review uncovered no existing scales specifically designed to measuring general attitudes towards ACEs, so each of the items developed for this study were either modifications of existing scale items or items created specifically for this study.
The five modified items from this scale include: I get more pleasure from ads that have celebrity athlete endorsers. Celebrity athlete endorsers make the ads they appear in more entertaining. Celebrity athlete endorsers contribute to my knowledge of quality products.
Celebrity athlete endorsers tell me which products have the features I want. Ads with celebrity athlete endorsers serve as valuable information sources. The remaining four items were developed specifically for this study including: I prefer products endorsed by celebrity athletes that are experts on the products.
Likable celebrity athletes in ads attract my attention more than unlikable sports stars. I desire products endorsed by likable celebrity athlete endorsers. In general, I like ads that use celebrity athletes as endorsers.
Respondents rated their levels of agreement with each of the nine items. Responses were measured on a seven-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree. Because English fluency was a requirement for admission to the Chinese branch campus of the U. This fact simplified the questionnaire construction process by eliminating the need for instrument translation, which attempted to avoid the translation limitations typical to cross-cultural consumer research.
Findings Because the sample revealed differences in the number of female versus male respondents, a Chi-square test was used to examine the possibility of a gender bias in the sample by country.
The result of the Chi-square test revealed no significant difference in the composition of each of the country groups for all nine items. However, for the total sample i. A principle components factor analysis was run to test for the dimensionality of the scale and results showed that all nine items loaded on one dimension with item loadings ranging from.
The single hypothesis in this study posited that relative to U. As shown in Table 2, the Chinese sample reported significantly higher levels of agreement with six of the nine items.
Discussion and Implications These findings support the premise that Chinese consumers, being from a high power distance culture, may tend to more willingly accept the recommendations of ACEs than those in the U.
Therefore, Chinese consumers may be especially likely to refer to celebrities for guidance when faced with purchase decisions. The Chinese sample agreed more strongly than the U. While ACEs are excellent ways to attract attention to advertisements in cluttered marketing environments, product information may also be communicated via ACEs a number of different ways, such as when celebrities share testimonials about their personal experience with the endorsed product or when a celebrity with a certain image is matched up with particular products desiring that image.
A print advertisement from the campaign featured a visual of Ripken standing beside a Chevy pickup with the headline: The Chevy truck of ball players. The concept of cultural context becomes critical when considering this issue.
In low context cultures e. In high context cultures e. Thus, in high context cultures e. Accordingly, the symbolic nature of ACEs facilitates the communication of advertising information in a high context culture. For example, Garmin used Yao Ming to endorse its navigation system in the U.
Conclusions This study compared U. Further research is needed to examine such attitudes in the context of specific product types. Such research would provide insight into the advisability of using ACEs to endorse high involvement glamour and technology products, as well as non-sports related low involvement products such as pain relievers and soft drinks.
The results suggest that relative to U. Therefore, companies targeting Chinese markets with such ads must clearly understand how these markets may respond, since initial indications from this study predict a high level of receptiveness to such marketing techniques.
The findings also concur with previous literature e.You may find it helpful to review the section of our Literature Review Tutorial that discusses synthesizing ideas.
This section provides tools to help you organize your ideas and identify themes and gaps in the literature you review on your topic. There was some comparison between later and earlier explanations and the synthesised conclusions that can be drawn.
4. Linked back to the relevant to the general findings of the earlier literature review chapters. In this chapter, the literature on the topic, “Comparison of Chinese consumers’ views of Western and Chinese domestic grocery brands”, is going to be reviewed.
This literature review is going to be helpful in determining the Chinese consumer experience with the local as well as foreign brands. Chinese and Western Leadership Models: A Literature Review Purpose: This study sought to examine how models of Western and Chinese leadership are changing and perhaps converging toward a notionally similar and possibly holistic concept of leadership.
REVIEW AND COMPARISON OF THREE CULTURAL COMPETENCY EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR NURSES By Lanette Cheryl Perkins A Professional Paper submitted in partial fulfillment. Review matrices are especially helpful for health sciences literature reviews covering the complete scope of a research topic over time.
This guide focuses on the review matrix step in the literature review process.