Dairy cows were introduced to by English settlers in the early s. Meat cows were introduced by Spanish settlers.
Monument to Bartolomeo Colleonihe was captain-general of the Republic of Venice.
From the 9th to the 12th century, Venice developed into a city state an Italian thalassocracy or Repubblica Marinara: Its strategic position at the head of the Adriatic made Venetian naval and commercial power almost invulnerable.
Later mainland possessions, which extended across Lake Garda as far west as the Adda Riverwere known as the "Terraferma", and were acquired partly as a buffer against belligerent neighbours, partly to guarantee Alpine trade routes, and partly to ensure the supply of mainland wheat, on which the city depended.
In building its maritime commercial empire, the Republic dominated the trade in salt,  acquired control of most of the islands in the Aegeanincluding Creteand Cyprus in the Mediterranean, and became a major power-broker in the Near East. By the standards of the time, Venice's stewardship of its mainland territories was relatively enlightened and the citizens of such towns as BergamoBrescia and Verona rallied to the defence of Venetian sovereignty when it was threatened by invaders.
Venice remained closely associated with Constantinople, being twice granted trading privileges in the Eastern Roman Empire, through the so-called Golden Bulls or "chrysobulls" in return for aiding the Eastern Empire to resist Norman and Turkish incursions. In the first chrysobull, Venice acknowledged its homage to the Empire; but not in the second, reflecting the decline of Byzantium and the rise of Venice's power.
As a result of this conquest, considerable Byzantine plunder was brought back to Venice. This plunder included the gilt bronze horses from the Hippodrome of Constantinoplewhich were originally placed above the entrance to the cathedral of Venice, St Mark's Basilicaalthough the originals have been replaced with replicas and are now stored within the basilica.
After the fall of Constantinople, the former Roman Empire was partitioned among the Latin crusaders and the Venetians. Venice subsequently carved out a sphere of influence in the Mediterranean known as the Duchy of the Archipelagoand captured Crete.
Although the Byzantines recovered control of the ravaged city a half-century later, the Byzantine Empire was terminally weakened, and existed as a ghost of its old self until Sultan Mehmet The Conqueror took the city in By the late 13th century, Venice was the most prosperous city in all of Europe.
At the peak of its power and wealth, it had 36, sailors operating 3, ships, dominating Mediterranean commerce. Venice's leading families vied with each other to build the grandest palaces and support the work of the greatest and most talented artists. The city was governed by the Great Councilwhich was made up of members of the noble families of Venice.
The Great Council appointed all public officials and elected a Senate of to individuals. Since this group was too large for efficient administration, a Council of Ten also called the Ducal Council or the Signoriacontrolled much of the administration of the city.
One member of the great council was elected " Doge ", or duke, the chief executive, who usually held the title until his death; although several Doges were forced by pressure from their oligarchical peers to resign and retire into monastic seclusion when they were felt to have been discredited by political failure.
The Venetian government structure was similar in some ways to the republican system of ancient Rome, with an elected chief executive the Dogea senate-like assembly of nobles, and a mass of citizens with limited political power, who originally had the power to grant or withhold their approval of each newly elected Doge.
Church and various private properties were tied to military service, although there was no knight tenure within the city itself. The Cavalieri di San Marco was the only order of chivalry ever instituted in Venice, and no citizen could accept or join a foreign order without the government's consent.
Venice remained a republic throughout its independent period, and politics and the military were kept separate, except when on occasion the Doge personally headed the military. War was regarded as a continuation of commerce by other means hence, the city's early production of large numbers of mercenaries for service elsewhere, and later its reliance on foreign mercenaries when the ruling class was preoccupied with commerce.
Paul Getty Museum Although the people of Venice generally remained orthodox Roman Catholics, the state of Venice was notable for its freedom from religious fanaticism and executed nobody for religious heresy during the Counter-Reformation.
This apparent lack of zeal contributed to Venice's frequent conflicts with the Papacy. In this context, the writings of the Anglican divine William Bedell are particularly illuminating.
Venice was threatened with the interdict on a number of occasions and twice suffered its imposition. The second, most noted, occasion was inby order of Pope Paul V. Venetian ambassadors sent home still-extant secret reports of the politics and rumours of European courts, providing fascinating information to modern historians.
The newly invented German printing press spread rapidly throughout Europe in the 15th century, and Venice was quick to adopt it. ByVenice was the printing capital of the world, and the leading printer was Aldus Manutiuswho invented paperback books that could be carried in a saddlebag. His Aldine Editions included translations of nearly all the known Greek manuscripts of the era.
It also sent ships to help defend Constantinople against the besieging Turks After Constantinople fell to Sultan Mehmet IIhe declared the first of a series of Ottoman-Venetian wars that cost Venice much of its eastern Mediterranean possessions.
Next, Christopher Columbus discovered the New World in Then Vasco da Gama of Portugal found a sea route to India by rounding the Cape of Good Hope during his first voyage of —99, destroying Venice's land route monopoly.
France, England and the Dutch Republic followed. Venice's oared galleys were at a disadvantage when it came to traversing the great oceans, and therefore Venice was left behind in the race for colonies.Directory of teaching and learning resources, including lesson plans, teaching guides, study guides, reading guides, discussion guides, litplans & more.
[Not the most interesting topic in the world, but I’m posting it so I have something to link to next time I see this argument] I talk about superintelligence a lot, usually in .
Gmail is email that's intuitive, efficient, and useful. 15 GB of storage, less spam, and mobile access. A collage of Venice: at the top left is the Piazza San Marco, followed by a view of the city, then the Grand Canal, and (smaller) the interior of La Fenice and, finally, the Island of San Giorgio Maggiore.
Muffins English muffins, crumpets, scones & bannock American muffins Blueberry muffins. Researching the history of bread-related products is difficult because bread is THE universal food. - Nectar in a Sieve is a work of literature written in the mid s. This work describes the effect that modernization and industrialization had on the farming families of India.
During this time many traditional values had to be overturned by the people in order to keep up with the changing times.