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Over time, they have evolved many different mechanisms to survive the various harsh environments which include extreme temperatures, salinity, pressure,different levels of aeration and radiation, overcoming effects of mutation, and combating infection, fouling and overgrowth by other organisms.
Organisms with no apparent physical defense, like sessile organisms, are believed to have evolved chemical defenses to protect themselves. This has been described to be analogues to pheromones but with the purpose of repelling instead of attracting.
Conus magus is an example of a cone snail that has a poisoned harpoon-like projectile which it uses to paralyze prey like small fish. Some vertebrate animals include fish, sharks and snakes.
Some examples of invertebrates are sponges, coelenterates, tunicates, echinoderms, corals, algae, molluscs and bryozoans. Some microorganisms include bacteria, fungi and cyanobacteria. Biological Diversity in Marine Environments[ edit ] Marine environments are considered more biologically diverse than terrestrial environments.
Fifteen different phyla are represented only in marine environments, while only 1 is exclusively terrestrial. Marine phyla also contain functionally unique organisms such as filter feeders and sessile organisms which have no terrestrial counterpart.
Also, marine autotrophs are more diverse than their terrestrial counterparts. Marine autotrophs are believed to stem from at least 8 ancient clades while terrestrial organisms mainly stem from one clade, Embyrophyta. The greatest marine tropical biodiversity is reported to be in the Indo-Pacific Ocean.
Samples from near or on shores are readily accessible via beach combingwading or snorkeling. Corers can be used for sediment sample collection from deep locations quickly, easily and inexpensively. SCUBA diving was introduced in the s however,  it was not widely used until it became popular in the s.
SCUBA diving is limited in the duration that divers can spend underwater when conducted from the surface. If prolonged dives were necessary, an underwater laboratory could be used. Aquarius is the only underwater laboratory dedicated to marine science. The different steps required to obtain a biologically active compound are: Extractionchromatographic purificationdereplication, structure elucidation and bioassay testing.
The steps do not have to follow that particular order and many steps may be completed simultaneously. In the first step, the sample may be triturated and extracted with a suitable solvent or macerated.
Some solvents used are methanol: The purpose is to remove organic compounds that have a medium polarity which are considered more "drug-like". Ideally,polar compounds like saltspeptidessugars as well as very non-polar compounds like lipids are left behind to simplify chromatography since they are not generally considered "drug-like".
Drying of the sample could be completed before extraction by lyophilisation to remove any excess water and therefore limit the amount of highly polar compounds extracted.
The next step depends on the methodology of individual laboratories. Bioassay-guided fractionation is a common method to find biologically active compounds. This involves testing the crude extract or preliminary fractions from chromatography in an assay or multiple assays, determining what fractions or crude extracts show activity in the specific assays, and further fractionating the active fractions or extracts.
This step is than repeated where the new fractions are tested and the active fractions are further fractionated. This continues until the fraction only contains one compound.
Dereplication is ideally performed as early as possible to determine if the active compound has been previously reported in order to prevent "rediscovering" a compound.
This can be performed using Liquid Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry LC-MS data or Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR data obtained in the biological assay-guided process and than comparing the information to that found in databases of previously reported compounds. Tandem Mass Spectrometry can also be useful, especially for large molecules like glycolipidsproteinspolysaccharides or peptides.
Completed characterization for publication purposes may require Infrared IRUltraviolet-visible UV-visspecific rotation and melting point data. Obtaining a crystal structure via X-ray crystallography can greatly accelerate and simplify structure elucidation however, obtaining crystals can be quite difficult.Chemical Compound Isolation For the isolation of biologically active compounds from organisms, several different steps need to be completed.
The different steps required to obtain a biologically active compound are: Extraction, chromatographic purification, dereplication, structure elucidation and bioassay testing. Pharmacognosy: Chemical Compound and Drugs Essay Recreational drugs are chemical substances that affect the central nervous system, such as opioids or hallucinogens.
They may be used for perceived beneficial effects on perception, consciousness, personality, and behavior.
This Pharmacognosy program includes the dissertation of providing statistics of physical, biological and chemical properties of drugs and products that are obtained from natural source. This deals with all the parameters of medicinal, traditional and also herbal plants.
The American Society of Pharmacognosy defines pharmacognosy as “the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources”.
Perhaps we should not confuse between tools and aims. Pharmacognosy needs pharmacology and chemistry, but it is neither pharmacology nor chemistry.
Likewise pharmacology uses chemistry, molecular biology, gene technology and many other disciplines as sources of tools, but its inherent aim is to understand the effects of drugs . Pharmacognosy – Herbal Drug Technology Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Saurashtra University Rajkot - Use of colorimeter for analysis of Pharmacopoeial compounds and their formulations.
2. Solid State Chemistry of Drugs by S.R. Byrn. 5. Chemical Stability of Pharmaceuticals by K.A. Connors.