The Dutch established a patroon system with feudal-like rights given to a few powerful landholders; they also established religious tolerance and free trade. The city was captured by the English in ; they took complete control of the colony in and renamed it New York. However the Dutch landholdings remained, and the Hudson River Valley maintained a traditional Dutch character until the s.
Settlement and Economic Development: English colonization would open lucrative new American markets for "the Woollen clothes of England " and "sundry [of] our commodities upon the tract of that firme land.
The "excellent and fertile soile" on both sides of North America 's "greate and deep" natural waterways promised "all things that the life of man doth require," and whatever settlers wanted to plant they could expect to harvest in abundance sufficient to "trafficke in.
The first to feel the effects of this transformation were the Native Americanswho met English vessels at the shore with valuable furs which they readily exchanged for prized English goods such iron tools, glass beads, and woven cloth.
Most early English settlements depended heavily on such trade to repay investors who had financed their voyages, and some economies such as New York 's continued to rely significantly on the "Indian trade" through much of the colonial period. The fur trade also exerted a profound impact on Native American economic life as imported European goods began displacing traditional tools, weapons, utensils, apparel, and ornamentation.
The historian James Axtell has termed this process "the first consumer revolution" in which Native Americans ' appetite for European goods spurred the growth of a Native market for European products that extended rapidly into the interior of North America.
Trade with Europeans altered nearly everything about Native life, disrupting and redirecting traditional trading patterns, producing a strain on the natural environment through over-hunting and over-trapping, and changing the way that American Indians clothed themselves, cooked their food, cultivated their soil, and hunted their game.
Iron tools replaced implements of bone and stone, woolen garments replaced buckskin, muskets replaced arrows and spears. By many eastern woodland Indians had become permanently dependent on European commerce, and their participation in colonial commerce contributed greatly to North American economic growth.
Settlers of Jamestown, the first successful English settlement in North America, shared with the adventurers of the earlier, ill-fated Roanoake settlement of the hope of tapping into precious sources of New World mineral wealth.
The founding settlers expected to exploit Virginia's game, fishing, and agriculture, and establishing a lucrative trade with the neighboring Powhattan empire. Nearly all these hopes were dashed as the Chesapeake colony teetered on the brink of failure for more than a decade.
They found no gold or gems, manufacturing enterprises such as a glassworks failed, their Old World work habits ill-prepared them for the demanding task of tilling and planting virgin soil, they were continually racked by disease, and their repeated provocation resulted in perpetual strife with their Indian neighbors.
Tobacco, which the settler John Rolfe began cultivating ineventually became the staple crop that saved the colony. Europeans loved the crop in spite of the denunciations of smoking by prominent figures, including King James I himself. Jamestown planters were soon cultivating the "stinking weed" wherever they could find suitable land.
Tobacco plantations began springing up along Chesapeake estuaries, creating a growing demand for labor and land as successful planters increased their holdings to put even more tobacco into cultivation. Settlers who founded the colony of Maryland in quickly began following the example of their Virginia neighbors.
For much of the seventeenth century, Chesapeake planters relied mainly on the labor of indentured servants from England, occasionally supplementing that labor force with captive Indians or Africans whose status varied from person to person.
English indentured servants bound themselves to work for a period of four to seven years, after which they were released. Many Africans brought to North America before shared that status, but a growing number came as slaves for life.
Disease and malnutrition made life miserable for both European and African servants. When the supply of European servants began dwindling afterplanters turned increasingly to African slaves. Bythe economies of Virginia and Maryland had come to depend on the labor of lifetime slaves of African descent who cultivated the main export crop.
A very different economy emerged in the colonies of New England as families migrated to Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, New HavenConnecticut, Rhode Islandand New Hampshire to escape pressure to conform to the state-sanctioned ceremonies of the Church of England.
The colder northern climate prevented the cultivation of staple crops common in England, but the land was suitable for traditional English farming methods. Significant equality in the size of family property was insured in many parts of New England by an orderly process of land distribution.
The New England governments granted large tracts to incorporated towns, which would in turn grant parcels to heads of households on the basis of present and future need. Commerce boomed during Massachusetts Bay's first decade of settlement as earlier settlers prospered by producing goods for sale to the thousands of new arrivals who took passage each year.
Yet when the flow of migration ceased after the outbreak of the English Civil War inthe nascent market economy dried up. Massachusetts officials sought to compensate by developing overseas markets, successfully establishing a trading partnership with British colonies in the West Indies that continued throughout the colonial period.It was a wave of religious enthusiasm among Protestants that swept the colonies in the s and s, leaving a permanent impact on American religion.
Jonathan Edwards was a key leader and a powerful intellectual in colonial America. Virginia would become the first British colony to legally establish slavery in Maryland and the Carolinas were soon to follow.
After the arrival of Europeans in North America, what had a negative impact on Native American cultural life? disease, the introduction of horses, trade, land What was the primary labor source for the early development of the plantation colonies of Virginia and Maryland? They developed slave codes to help institutionalize racism and other forms of social control to buttress the plantation system. 3 The plantation complex drove the economic development of the Americas and had a transformative impact on the ecology, economy, culture, and social structure of the European colonies that formed in the Americas. The. The cotton plantation economy, for instance, is generally seen as part of the regional economy of the American South. By the s, "cotton was king" indeed in the South.
The only Southern colony to resist the onset of slavery was Georgia, created as an Enlightened experiment. It was the "staple" of the Chesapeake colonies in a broader sense than any other staple the world has known. For, in the ancient province, all the processes of government society and domestic life began and ended with tobacco.
Honors US History. STUDY. PLAY. which of the following did NOT have a negative impact on the Native American cultural life? the introduction of horses. Chapter two: The primary labor source for the early development of the plantation colonies of Virginia and Maryland was: indentured servants.
in the Southern Colonies. The port city of Charles Town (later called Charleston) in South Carolina was an early exception. As the plantation economy continued to .
The cotton plantation economy, for instance, is generally seen as part of the regional economy of the American South. By the s, "cotton was king" indeed in the South.