The Human Genome project HGP The Human Genome project HGP The main reason for the successful completion of the Human Genome was that it allowed investments and help from the researchers and collaborators all over the world moving beyond the borders in an effort to understand the heritage of our molecules and also to benefit from the techniques and approaches provided by researchers all over the world. This was known from the start but as better technologies have come in, the HGP has shown more and more potential. However, from an ethical point of view, many critics even today have cracked down on the project. The main reason for this been the timeline of the project and the expenses that go with it.
Trevor Dale Copyright The Human Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort that has the goal of analyzing the sequence of human DNA and determining the location of all human genes. Begun inthe U. Human Genome project was originally planned to last 15 years but now is projected to be complete in 13 years.
This project was started to find the 80, -human genes and to determine the sequence of the 3 - billion chemical bases that make up human DNA. The information generated by the human genome project is expected to be the source book for biomedical fields, including those such as developmental biology and neurobiology, where scientists are just beginning to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms.
The human genome project is expected to immensely benefit medical science. It will help us to understand and eventually treat many of the more than genetic diseases that afflict mankind, as well as the many multifunctional diseases in which genetic predisposition plays an important role.
New technologies emanating from the genome project will also find application in other fields such as agriculture and the environmental sciences.
The human genome consists of 50, togenes located on 23 pairs of chromosomes. One chromosome in each pair is inherited from the mother, and the other from the father. Each chromosome contains a long molecule of DNA, the molecule of which genes are made. The order of the four bases on the DNA strand determines the information content of a particular gene or piece of DNA.
Mapping is the process of determining the position and spacing of genes, or other genetic landmarks, on the chromosomes relative to one another. The possibility of initiating such a major and significant research program was extensively discussed in the scientific community during and In earlyfurther discussion culminated in the publication of two additional, widely circulated, influential reports.
Congress Office of Technology Assessment OTA report presented a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the scientific developments that had led to the promise of "mapping and sequencing" the human genome and presented an outline for a multi-phase research plan for accomplishing the goal of sequencing human DNA over the course of the following two decades.
In fiscal yearthe Congress of the United States launched the human genome project by appropriating funds to both the DOE and the National Institutes of Health NIH specifically for support of research efforts to determine the structure of complex genomes.
It is generally agreed that the overall goal of the Human Genome Initiative is to acquire fundamental information needed to further our basic scientific understanding of human genetics and of the role of various genes in health and disease.
Construction of a high-resolution genetic map of the human genome; Production of a variety of physical maps of all human chromosomes and DNA of selected model organisms, with emphasis on maps that make the DNA accessible to investigators for further analysis; Determination of the complete sequence of human DNA and of the DNA of selected model organisms; Development of capabilities for collecting, storing, distributing, and analyzing the data produced; Creation of appropriate technologies necessary to achieve these objectives.
Because of the size of the human genome, the NRC committee and others recommended a multi-phase program. A general plan to eventually produce a human genome map over a five year period was approved by the NRC.
The initial pilot phase would consist of the following: Expansion of the human genetic map to a resolution of one centimorgan; Construction of complete physical maps of the DNA of certain model organisms and beginning the construction of physical maps of human chromosomes; Development of new technology to increase the efficiency and accuracy, and lower the cost, of physical mapping and of DNA sequencing.
It was decided upon that the task of sequencing the complete human DNA would be taken up at a later date or phase. And this would only be completed if it could be done at a reasonable cost. The overall program was expected to take at least fifteen years to complete. This general plan is still appropriate, but some of the details changed as improvements in the technology occurred.
The international consortium currently includes three U. In the initial or pilot phase, eight scientific teams supported by NHGRI, DOE and international collaborators completed the sequence of over million bases, of which million or close to 10 percent of the human genome are in high-quality finished form.
The pilot project also drove down the cost of sequencing to an average of 20 - 30 cents per base today. Besides sequencing human DNA, Genome Project researchers are developing new sequencing technologies and conducting studies of human genetic variation, genomic function, and genomic analysis of model organisms.Begun in , the U.S.
Human Genome project was originally planned to last 15 years but now is projected to be complete in 13 years. This project was started to find the 80, - , human genes and to determine the sequence of the 3 - billion chemical bases that make up human DNA. The Human Genome Project Biology Essay.
Human Genome Project (HGP): The HGP was initiated in with the objective of determining the DNA sequence of the entire human genome within 15 years. By , there was a draft sequence of the human genome4.
Researchers identified, in its 3 billion letters, many of the regions that code for proteins. The Human Genome Project was the largest international scientific research conducted in the field of Biology.
This research project began in with a mission of discovering all the genes in human DNA and determining the sequences of chemical base pairs which make up the DNA of human.
Human Genome Project Essay The Human Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort that has the goal of analyzing the sequence of human DNA and determining the location of all human genes. Begun in , the U.S. Human Genome project was originally planned to last 15 years but now is projected to be complete in 13 years.
The Human Genome Project is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated , human genes. The DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome.
The Human Genome Project This Research Paper The Human Genome Project and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on monstermanfilm.com Autor: review • November 22, • Research Paper • 1, Words (8 Pages) • 1, Views4/4(1).