The Augustus of Prima Porta early 1st century AD Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC. Then, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor.
Although Greek coins under the Roman Empire were nearly all of bronze and intended for local circulation, exceptional coinages in silver were allowed by Rome as a continuation, for wider regional use, of important preconquest currencies. The largest of these, running from Augustus… Imperial Rome A period of unrest and civil wars in the 1st century bc marked the transition of Rome from a republic to an empire.
This period encompassed the career of Julius Caesarwho eventually took full power over Rome as its dictator. His reign, from 27 bce to 14 ce, was distinguished by stability and peace.
The Senate still functioned, though Augustus, as princepsor first citizen, remained in control of the government. Under Augustus, Rome began to prosper once again, and the emperor came to be looked upon as a god. Thereafter, all good emperors were worshiped as gods after death.
Decadentcruel men also rose to power: Caligula 37—41 and Nero 54—68 were so loathed that their reigns were struck from the official Roman records.
Statue of the Roman emperor Augustus, 1st century ad. Thereafter, Christians were tolerated at best—but often tortured or killed—until the reign of Constantine I — In an edict of toleration for all religions was issued, and from about Christianity was favoured by the Roman state rather than persecuted by it.
But the empire was dying. The Western Empire, suffering from repeated invasions and the flight of the peasants into the cities, had grown weak compared with the East, where spices and other exports virtually guaranteed wealth and stability. When Theodosius died, inRome split into Eastern and Western empires.
The West was severely shaken inwhen the city of Rome was sacked by the Visigothsa wandering nation of Germanic peoples from the northeast. The fall of Rome was completed inwhen the German chieftain Odoacer deposed the last Roman emperor of the West, Romulus Augustulus.
The fall of RomeExplore the possible origins of the fall of the Roman Empire in this video. The Romans possessed a powerful army and were gifted in the applied arts of law, government, city planningand statecraft, but they also acknowledged and adopted contributions of other ancient peoples—most notably, those of the Greeksmuch of whose culture was thereby preserved.
Roman lawfor example, was a considered and complex body of precedents and comments, which were all finally codified in the 6th century see Justinian, Code of.
Roman city planners achieved unprecedented standards of hygiene with their plumbing, sewage disposal, dams, and aqueducts. Roman architecture, though often imitative of Greek styles, was boldly planned and lavishly executed. Triumphal arches commemorated important state occasions, and the famous Roman baths were built to stir the senses as well as to cleanse the body.
Interior of the Colosseum in Rome. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:A brief treatment of the Roman Republic follows. For full treatment, see ancient Rome.
The early historical record. The early Roman Republic (– bce) and the preceding regal period (– bce) are the most poorly documented periods of Roman history.
the population of the Roman Empire is 60 million (about 15 million Christians) Diocletian and Maximian order a general persecution of the Christians, including the destruction of all churches (1, Christians will be .
The empire in the East—known today as the Byzantine Empire, but referred to in its time as the "Roman Empire" or by various other names—ended in with the death of Constantine XI and the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Europe's Kingdoms (From the Ashes of the Roman Empire): The following resources relate to the end of the Roman Empire and the Fall of Rome.
This includes theories about the Fall of Rome (including lead) and several of the Roman emperors whose actions hastened the end of the Roman Empire in the West.
the population of the Roman Empire is 60 million (about 15 million Christians) Diocletian and Maximian order a general persecution of the Christians, including the destruction of all churches (1, Christians will be killed in eight years) and burning of all Christian books.
16 rows · Roman Empire Timeline Timeline Description: The Roman Empire was one of the greatest .