Invasions of Privacy by Journalists 1. Privacy is the expectation that confidential personal information disclosed in a private place will not be disclosed to third parties, when that disclosure would cause either embarrassment or emotional distress to a person of reasonable sensitivities. Information is interpreted broadly to include facts, images e.
In order to assess the use of such new tools in designing effective outreach strategies, the ICC must first conduct mapping exercises to determine the level of access and technology infrastructure within a given community. Summary Outreach is a critical component of the work of the ICC.
Claims to the contrary can be countered through an assessment of the mandate and purpose of international justice. Addressing any security threats, The statute of limitations essay through new technology, is crucial to this initial assessment phase. In terms of technology tools which facilitate communication, the ICC has several options for building partnerships with technology partners, including on the provision of hardware and tools which facilitate connectivity.
Finally, in terms of the substance of the engagement, the ICC can also maximize partnerships with actors currently generating content on the work of the Court. However, technology tools cannot replace the need for developing culturally sensitive and gender appropriate methodologies, and securing the funding from the Member States in order to ensure the ICC is co-developing strong outreach and public information strategies with the affected communities.
Expand Argument The premise that international courts ought to conduct outreach is disputed. Indeed, these criticisms may appear to have been borne out historically, since both the Ad Hoc Tribunals for Rwanda and the Former Yugoslavia did not include public information as part of the official budget and instead outreach was funded by a small group of States on a voluntary basis.
However, there are several ways in which the very foundations of international justice require robust outreach and public information processes. Firstly, assessments of past tribunals have demonstrated that without outreach, international justice takes place in a decontextualized vacuum which risks rendering the entire legal process pointless.
An in-depth population-based survey of the communities in Rwanda demonstrated that the work of the Rwanda Tribunal was virtually unknown to the majority of the population in Rwanda.
The conclusion of this study identified that outreach was crucial in providing information about the cases and understanding about the justice processes, including how cases were selected and how judges determined guilt through convictions or acquittals.
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Such information provided citizens the opportunity to situate the legal process within the broader community healing process and reconciliation. First, the Preamble to the Rome Statute links accountability with peace and security, 6 which thereby recognizes the broader context within which the Court operates, and thus the need for the Court to interact with actors outside the court.
This places an obligation on the Court to engage with the full range of constituents responsible for maintaining peace and security, including directly to citizens through outreach and public information.
Secondly, the Preamble highlights the objective of the international community to prevent crime through the work of the ICC. This is particularly the case for the ICC which, unlike the previous Ad Hoc Tribunals, includes components of the civil law system through the victim participation process.
This increased knowledge of the Court and its methods of operation will have a positive impact on the ability for outside actors to interact with the Court and thereby enhance the ability of the Court to achieve its mandate. After establishing that the ICC is required to conduct outreach and public information, it is then necessary to determine what activities constitutes outreach, and in turn, what challenges exist to the implementation of outreach.
Outreach does not have a strict technical definition and its meaning is not set out in the core legal documents of the Court.
However, the ICC has publicized its own definitions through its public website and its official reports, including most recently in the Report of the Court on the Public Information Strategy — According to the ICTJoutreach and public information programs should ensure that accountability processes are: Both these issues positive complementarity and legacy are yet to be addressed in a clear strategy by the Court and the Member States.
There are several emerging new tools, particularly those utilizing technology, which can assist the Court in overcoming challenges to outreach and facilitate the Court in achieving its mandate.
Within the parameters of these definitional issues, many concrete challenges can be identified. The most crucial challenge which ought to be addressed from the outset in any context is the question of security and protection.
The ICC provides protection in only a limited range of circumstances, generally when individuals are put at risk as a result of their activities with the Court.
By conducting a thorough risk assessment in preparing a communications strategy in advance of entering a new situation, ICC staff can ascertain the means by which the Court can engage with people within a given country, and thereby identify the security risks associated with the means of communication and the means of engagement primarily utilized in that country.
There are several groups which provide security expertise and training, and keep abreast of technology developments and the new emerging challenges. For example, Security First covers protection issues responding to the full spectrum of threats faced by human rights defenders, from physical risks through to threats to confidentiality.
The extent to which technology is utilized within a given ICC situation country is critical in devising an outreach and public information strategy which will maximize the opportunity for a meaningful engagement.
Technology is often critical to the establishment of contact and enabling dialogue. International courts and tribunals typically rely upon intermediary organizations such as survivor networks and local human rights groups in order to initiate communication and conduct outreach.
However, in order to best design innovative and meaningful outreach strategies, the ICC must build strategies which are reflective of the technology infrastructure within a given country and region.
This requires the ICC to conduct a mapping of the technology infrastructure and use. There are several organizations which are active in mapping global communication infrastructure, for example, the Engine Room is developing a project called TechScape to provide empirical data on technology use.The Federalist No.
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