Find out where your enemy is. Get at him as soon as you can.
The Other Civil War A sheriff in the Hudson River Valley near Albany, New York, about to go into the hills in the fall of to collect back rents from tenants on the enormous Rensselaer estate, was handed a letter: The tenants now assume the right of doing to their landlord as he has for a long time done with them, viz: You need not think this to be children's play I would not pledge for your safe return.
When a deputy arrived in the farming area with writs demanding the rent, farmers suddenly appeared, assembled by the blowing of tin horns. They seized his writs and burned them. That December, a sheriff and a mounted posse of five hundred rode into the farm country, but found themselves in the midst of shrieking tin horns, eighteen hundred farmers blocking their path, six hundred more blocking their rear, all mounted, armed with pitchforks and clubs.
The sheriff and his posse turned back, the rear guard parting to let them through. It was a protest against the patroonship system, which went back to the s when the Dutch ruled New York, a system where as Christman describes it "a few families, intricately intermarried, controlled the destinies of three hundred thousand people and ruled in almost kingly splendor near two million acres of land.
The landowner, as one sympathizer of the tenants put it, could "swill his wine, loll on his cushions, fill his life with society, food, and culture, and ride his barouche and five saddle horses along the beautiful river valley and up to the backdrop of the mountain.
The economic crisis of had filled the area with unemployed seeking land, on top of the layoffs accompanying the completion of the Erie Canal, after the first wave of railroad building ended.
That summer the tenants resolved: Smith Boughton, a country doctor on horseback; Ainge Devyr, a revolutionary Irishman. Devyr had seen monopoly of land and industry bring misery to the slumdwellers of London, Liverpool, and Glasgow, had agitated for change, had been arrested for sedition, and fled to America.
He was invited to address a Fourth of July rally of farmers in Rensselaerville, where he warned his listeners: They agreed on calico Indian costumes, symbol of the Boston Tea Party and recalling original ownership of the soil.
The tin horn represented an Indian call to arms. Soon ten thousand men were trained and ready.
Organizing went on in county after county, in dozens of towns along the Hudson. Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs trying to serve writs on farmers were surrounded by calico-clad riders who had been summoned by tin horns sounding in the countryside-then tarred and feathered.
The New York Herald, once sympathetic, now deplored "the insurrectionary spirit of the mountaineers. A man sent onto a tenant's land to gather wood for the landlord was killed. A farm boy was killed mysteriously, no one knew by whom, but Dr.
The governor ordered artillerymen into action, and a company of cavalry came up from New York City. Petitions for an antirent bill, signed by 25, tenants, were put before the legislature in The bill was defeated.
A kind of guerrilla war resumed in the country, between bands of "Indians" and sheriffs' posses. Boughton was kept in jail seven months, four and a half months of that in heavy irons, before being released on bail. Fourth of July meetings in attended by thousands of farmers pledged continued resistance.
Similar attempts to sell livestock for rent payments were thwarted, again and again. The governor sent three hundred troops in, declaring a state of rebellion existed, and soon almost a hundred Anti-Renters were in jail. Smith Boughton was brought to trial.
He was charged with taking papers from a sheriff but declared by the judge to have in fact committed "high treason, rebellion against your government, and armed insurrection" and sentenced to life imprisonment. Those "Indians" found to be armed and disguised at Moses Earle's farm, where the deputy had been killed, were declared by the judge to be guilty of murder, and the jury was so instructed.
All were found guilty, and the judge sentenced four to life imprisonment and two to be hanged.This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S.
justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the . the civil war. updated may 3, jump to: north/south differences, causes of the war, timelines, charts/outlines, maps & flags. primary documents, quotes, diaries.
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The Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts was established in early under the direction of colonel Robert Gould Shaw. The Spanish Civil War Was A Military Rebellion Against The Second Republic Of Spain - The Spanish conflict provides the underlying basis to understand the dynamics of the Cold War and generated some of the characteristics that define this particular time period.
Many explanations have been given for why the Confederacy lost the American Civil War.
This post was published last year at this time and since my students are preparing essays on the subject I thought I might offer it once again. Today my Civil War classes finished watching the movie Glory, which is still my all-time favorite Civil War movie. Students enjoy the movie in part because. There have always been those who emphasized internal factors in explaining why the Confederacy lost. Immediately after the war, many influential Confederates blamed southern defeat on the manifold. A Roundtable Discussion. On April 9, , Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union forces at Appomattox, putting an end to the bloodiest war in American history.
Most of these explanations, as Gabor Boritt notes in his introduction to this perceptive collection of essays. An extensive amount of effort has gone into studying the American Civil War.
The reasons for the war and its outcome remain hotly debated. The following are nine of the many arguments that have been put forward for why the Confederacy lost.